In this perspective visualizations are not merely final outcomes of representing data, information and knowledge. Instead they have to be conceived as transformation processes within the DIK continuum. Visualizations are in fact able to gather data, information or knowledge (materials), visualizing them in an artifact is information, to eventually create new knowledge (objective) in the recipient.
L. Masud, F. Valsecchi, P. Ciuccarelli, D. Ricci, and G. Caviglia. From data to knowledge - visualizations as transformation processes within the data-information-knowledge continuum. Information Visualisation, Intl. Conference on, 0:445–449, 2010.